Chlorogenic Acid in Green Coffee Beans

Standard

Chlorogenic acids (CGA), are common polyphenols in plants. CGA are well absorbed in humans and have no reported side-effects in any sensible amount (3). They are considered Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) by the FDA.

CGA have strong effects in the body on insulin metabolism, utilization of body fat as fuel, and fat loss. CGA in green coffee beans, the top common source, range from about 60-90 mg/g. Amounts vary, however, by area grown, species, and year. Some green coffee beans haven’t much CGA, and zero effects on losing weight (1-3).

Roasting of coffee beans destroys the majority of the CGA. (4) So you cannot use roasted beans or ground coffee itself as a source of CGA. Hence all the hype using green, unroasted, coffee beans for weight reduction.

Rapid advances in analytic techniques over the past 10 years (5,6), have enabled good biochemists to separate beneficial effects of CGA from effects of caffeine. The chemistry is very complex, however (7). Consequently many organisations have made a complete mess of it.
Due to the huge profit potential in the burgeoning weight loss market, many CGA products have been improperly extracted and rushed to sale. Recently, the Federal Trade Commission found that even some products distributed under standardized brands, from good laboratories, have been adulterated by distributors. This adulteration produces worthless products with very low CGA.

Consequently, if you plan to purchase green coffee bean products, check out company selling them thoroughly. Many companies who never did the chemistry before, have jumped on the bandwagon and are producing useless diet supplements.

Real CGA is Effective

Real CGA does work. In both human and animal studies, CGA have demonstrated strong anti-inflammatory (7,8), blood sugar lowering (9,10) and body fat reduction (10-12) effects, all of which are disordered in overweight. In animal studies, CGA have clear anti-diabetic effects on insulin resistance and on lipid metabolism (11-14).

Glucose-6-phosphatase, for instance, is the major enzyme for releasing glucose into the blood from the liver. This enzyme, helps regulate blood glucose in active young adults.

In older people, over age 35 however, it triggers an unhealthy after-meal boost in blood glucose. This surge becomes progressively worse as we get older. CGA have been demonstrated in a variety of controlled trials to control glucose-6 phosphatase and lower blood glucose in vitro, and in live animal, and human, trials (23-26).

CGA powder can be added to ground coffee after roasting with significant benefits for weight reduction (27). Keurig and similar systems can prepare delicious coffee at a lower temperature than expresso machines, and quicker than drip percolators. Consequently, they provide a less destructive vehicle for delivery of CGA from powder added to the pod.

CGA added to coffee before brewing coffee also yields a much better tasting coffee, because CGA provide much of the taste and aroma of coffee in any case. We use 200 mg of potent CGA powder per 8-ounce cup of joe, tipped into the central hole made by the Keurig machine before brewing. Drink this java daily in good faith that it will help you maintain recommended weight.

Green-Fu’s proportions of Green Coffee Bean Extract (a.k.a Green Chlorogenic Acid/GCA/Svetol), Magical Plant Proteins, Vitamins, and Essential Minerals, makes this today’s most exciting Weight Loss and Fat Burning Solution.

References:

1. M. R. Olthof, P. C. H. Hollman, M. B. Katan, et al., “Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans,” Journal of Nutrition, vol. 131, no. 1, pp. 66–71, 2001.
2. M. N. Clifford, “Chlorogenic acids and other cinnamates—nature, occurrence and dietary burden,”Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, vol. 79, no. 3, pp. 362–372, 1999.
3. Monteiro M1, Farah A, Perrone D, Trugo LC, Donangelo C Chlorogenic acid compounds from coffee are differentially absorbed and metabolized in humans. J Nutr. 2007 Oct;137(10):2196-201.
4. Mills CE1, Oruna-Concha MJ, Mottram DS, Gibson GR, Spencer JP. The effect of processing on chlorogenic acid content of commercially available coffee. Food Chem. 2013 Dec 15;141(4):3335-40. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.014.
5. Upadhyay R1, Mohan Rao LJ. An outlook on chlorogenic acids-occurrence, chemistry, technology, and biological activities. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2013;53(9):968-84. doi: 10.1080/10408398.2011.576319.
6. Moeenfard M1, Rocha L1, Alves A1. Quantification of Caffeoylquinic Acids in Coffee Brews by HPLC-DAD. J Anal Methods Chem. 2014;2014:965353. doi: 10.1155/2014/965353. Epub 2014 Dec 21.
7. de AzevedoI ABA, et al. Extraction of caffeine, chlorogenic acids and lipids from green coffee beans using supercritical carbon dioxide and co-solvents Braz. J. Chem. Eng. vol.25 no.3 São Paulo July/Sept. 2008.http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0104-66322008000300012
8. M. D. dos Santos, M. C. Almeida, N. P. Lopes, and G. E. P. de Souza, “Evaluation of the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antipyretic activities of the natural polyphenol chlorogenic acid,” Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 29, no. 11, pp. 2236–2240, 2006.
9. B. K. Bassoli, P. Cassolla, G. R. Borba-Murad et al., “Chlorogenic acid reduces the plasma glucose peak in the oral glucose tolerance test: effects on hepatic glucose release and glycaemia,” Cell Biochemistry and Function, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 320–328, 2008.
10. L.-T. Zhang, C.-Q. Chang, Y. Liu, and Z.-M. Chen, “Effect of chlorogenic acid on disordered glucose and lipid metabolism in db/db mice and its mechanism,” Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. 281–286, 2011.
11. K. W. Ong, A. Hsu, and B. K. Tan, “Anti-diabetic and anti-lipidemic effects of chlorogenic acid are mediated by ampk activation,” Biochemical Pharmacology, vol. 85, no. 9, pp. 1341–1351, 2013.
12. K. L. Johnston, M. N. Clifford, and L. M. Morgan, “Coffee acutely modifies gastrointestinal hormone secretion and glucose tolerance in humans: glycemic effects of chlorogenic acid and caffeine,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 78, no. 4, pp. 728–733, 2003
13. A. E. van Dijk, M. R. Olthof, J. C. Meeuse, E. Seebus, R. J. Heine, and R.
M. van Dam, “Acute effects of decaffeinated coffee and the major coffee components chlorogenic acid and trigonelline on glucose tolerance,” Diabetes Care, vol. 32, no. 6, pp. 1023–1025, 2009.
14. Meng S1, Cao J, Feng Q, Peng J, Hu Y Roles of chlorogenic Acid on regulating glucose and lipids metabolism: a review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013;2013:801457. doi:10.1155/2013/801457. Epub 2013 Aug 25.
15. Colgan M. Save Your Brain. Vancouver: Science Books, 2008.
16. Shukitt-Hale B, et al. Coffee, but not caffeine, has positive effects on cognition and psychomotor behavior in aging. Age (Dordr). 2013 Dec;35(6):2183-92. doi: 10.1007/s11357-012-9509-4.
17. Heitman E, Ingram DK. Cognitive and neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid. Nutr Neurosci, 2014, Aug 17. (Epub ahead of print)
18. Cho ES, et al. Attenuation of oxidative neuronal cell death by coffee phenolic phytochemicals. Mutat Res. 2009 Feb 10;661(1-2):18-24. doi:10.1016/j.mrfmmm.2008.10.021.
19. Shen W, et al. Chlorogenic acid inhibits LPS-induced microglial activation and improves survival of dopaminergic neurons. Brain Res Bull. 2012 Aug 1;88(5):487-94. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2012.04.010.
20. Jang H, et al. Chlorogenic acid and coffee prevent hypoxia-induced retinal degeneration. J Agric Food Chem. 2014 Jan 8;62(1):182-91. doi: 10.1021/jf404285v.
21. Selph S, Dana T, Blazina I, Bougatsos C, Patel H, Chou R. Screening for Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2015 Apr 14. doi: 10.7326/M14-2221.
22. Lin JS, O’Connor EA, Evans CV, Senger CA, Rowland MG, Groom HC.
Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthy Lifestyle for Cardiovascular Disease Prevention in Persons With Cardiovascular Risk Factors: An Updated Systematic Evidence Review for the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force [Internet]. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US); 2014 Aug.
23. Henry-Vitrac C, Ibarra A, Roller M, et al. Contribution of chlorogenic acids to the inhibition of human hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity in vitro by Svetol, a standardized decaffeinated green coffee extract. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Apr 14;58(7):4141-4.
24. Bassoli BK, Cassolla P, Borba-Murad GR, et al. Chlorogenic acid reduces the plasma glucose peak in the oral glucose tolerance test: effects on hepatic glucose release and glycaemia. Cell Biochem Funct. 2008 Apr;26(3):320-8.
25. Onakpova I, Terry R, Ernst E. The use of green coffee extract as a weight loss supplement: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2011:2011.
26. Ohnaka K, et al. Effects of 16-week consumption of caffeinated and decaffeinated instant coffee on glucose metabolism in a randomized controlled trial. J Nutr Metab. 2012;2012:207426. doi: 10.1155/2012/207426. Epub 2012 Nov 5.
27. Thom E. The effect of chlorogenic acid enriched coffee on glucose absorption in healthy volunteers and its effect on body mass when used long-term in overweight and obese people. J Int Med Res. 2007 NovDec;35(6):900-8.
28. Duarte GS1, Farah A. Effect of simultaneous consumption of milk and coffee on chlorogenic acids’ bioavailability in humans. J Agric Food Chem. 2011;Jul 27;59(14):7925-31. doi: 10.1021/jf201906p.
29. (STUDY RETRACTED OCT 2014 See Ref 30) Vinson JA, Burnham BR, Nagendran MV. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, linear dose, crossover study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a green coffee bean extract in overweight subjects Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy. 2012;5:21–27.

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